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James Lewis
James Lewis


The sampling rate defines the speed with which the ADC (or DAC) is sampled. The sampling rate is given in Samples per second to distinguish from the signal frequency or bandwidth which is given in Hz or kHz or MHz. On all Spectrum products the sampling rate can be programmed by software to adjust the amount of data that is acquired (replayed) per second. By setting the sampling rate the time between two samples is defined and can be calculated by [sample interval] = 1 / [sampling rate]. Examples:



The sampling rate in the data sheet is often stated as a maximum sampling rate that is only valid for one channel data acquisition. Depending on the structure of the card there may be limits (like maximum memory interface transfer speed or special interleaving ADCs) that prevent the product from sampling all samples with full speed. Nevertheless all Spectrum products utilize fully synchronous design with a separate ADC (DAC) and amplifier for all channels.

Shorter test time on the 8558A high-speed digital platform enables you to increase throughput, improve yield and realize a greater return on your investment. The 8558A digitizes to memory at 200 nanoseconds per reading and delivers 4.5 digit data to PC at 100,000 samples per second. Fast, high resolution data capture gives you the quantity and quality of information you need to make timely, correct decisions affecting system throughput and efficiency.

The 8558A features a 5 mega-sample digitizing rate with up to 20 MHz analog bandwidth, making it the first and only instrument on the market that can characterize extremely-low-level transient signals at 18-bit resolution. This capability makes it easier to debug designs, uncover anomalies and perfect your devices under test for use in real life environments.

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This condition needs to hold in order to reconstruct the original analog signal completely. Since algorithms can be implemented very inexpensively in the digital domain and if the samples acquired satisfy the Nyquist sampling theorem, signals can be reconstructed perfectly after the digital signal processing. Hence, the ADC acts as a bridge between two domains and its accuracy is highly critical for the performance of the system.

As shown in figure 1.17, the SHA works in two phases. In phase Φ1 sampling capacitance Cs samples the input signal while the OTA remains in an open loop. During phase Φ2 the OTA is put into the closed loop and it is at this phase that the SHA performs more slowly. To determine the design parameters of the SHA, calculations must be performed considering this phase Φ2. During Φ2 the OTA is used in closed loop mode and will have an effective load capacitance of

First, found Atmel SOC (system on chip), and since Linux was available for it, tried that. It would have been a great solution. It has gigabit Ethernet, which would have been ideal to transfer 2 megabytes per second off of that unit to a PC style Quad Core workstation.

Even so, we were so close, we decided to keep going. We could probably make 500,000 samples per second work, with some loss of capabilities. However, that rate would have allowed a successful product.

DMA was tried, but DMA priority conflict either killed the ADC or killed the transfer off chip. At 1 mega-sample per second you can only use one DMA engine and *keep* getting 1 mega-sample per second transferred into memory.

We decided to write out the data in software, as we could theoretically run 62 instructions per microsecond. 700,000 bytes per second (350,000 samples per second), using CPU writes in a loop, nothing else going on. (Measured on an oscilloscope.)

Closer! So, we put two of these devices and changed the bus to be 16 bits. (Two USB streams into the PC) 1,400,000 bytes per second. Closer. 200,000 samples faster than USB, so our product would work better. However, we could taste blood, so we kept going.

We started looking at the structure carefully. What if we did not do software loops but fell through writing a word at a time. 2048 repeated lines of code. Since the PSoC has 1/4 megabyte of flash, no problem. Suddenly, about three megabytes per second!

The thing I am left with is the realization that everyone who plays in this bathtub touts a 1 mega-sample per second A/D. No one has put features in their device for getting that data rate off of their device. I don't think the developers of the devices realize that if you get a mega-sample per second, you might want to use it. I feel that realization would have led them to provide either high speed USB 2.0, or Ethernet, along with the development environment support. Lack of development environment support nearly killed this beast.

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The 16 MHz refers to the sample rate while the 1 MHz is the actual number of samples taken. At a rate of 16 million samples per second, it takes 1/16 of a second to accumulate 1 million samples. Thus there is a tradeoff between sample rate and the number of samples. For a fixed sample rate, the sampling time is proportional to the number of samples.

The ENIGMA-Anxiety Working Group is open to sharing the data and code from this investigation to researchers for secondary data analysis. To request access to volumetric, clinical, and demographic data, an analysis plan can be submitted to the ENIGMA-Anxiety Working Group ( -anxiety/). Data access is contingent on approval by PIs from contributing samples.

Present day SAW devices can be used as extremely fast analogue processors with speeds of several tens of Mega-samples per second. Such speeds are required in low frequency multichannel or two-dimensional systems like sonar systems when real time operation is wanted. SAW processors can then be employed provided adequate I/O and interface circuits perform the necessary multiplexing and/or time scaling of the input signals. Compatible digital circuits now exist and full processors can be built which couple both technologies. This presentation will review the basics concerning the SAW and digital technologies. It will next show how they can be applied to particular sonar systems.

Sample labeling instructions: Submit your DNA in a PCR plate and label the top of the plate with your Order ID. For orders containing multiple 96-well samples, label each plate with the order item as well as the order item ID. 041b061a72


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